Friday, November 4, 2011

Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)

Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
A cooperative learning method for mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning.

Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)  In Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) (Slavin, 1994a), students are assigned to four-member learning teams that are mixed in performance level, gender, and ethnicity. The teacher presents a lesson, and then students work within their teams to make sure that all team members have mastered the lesson. Finally, all students take individual quizzes on the material, at which time they may not help one another.
            Students’ quiz scores are compared to their own past averages, and points are awarded on the basis of the degree to which students meet or exceed their own earlier performance. These points are then summed to form team scores, and teams that meet certain criteria may earn certificates or other rewards. In a related method called Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), students play games with members of other teams to add points to their team scores.
            STAD and TGT have been used in a wide variety of subjects, from mathematics to language arts to social studies, and have been used from second grade through college. The STAD method is most appropriate for teaching well-defined objectives with single right answers, such as mathematical computations and applications, language usage and mechanics, geography and map skills, and science facts and concepts. However, it can easily be adapted for use with less well-defined objectives by incorporating more open-ended assessments, such as essays or performances.

One major approach that is accepted as an effective method of cooperative learning is the Student Teams and Achievement Divisions (STAD) format crated by R. Slavin. Mary Hamm and Dennis Adams describe Slavin’s approach in their book, the collaborative dimensions of learning. His theory has five components:
1.      Class Presentation
Each week new material is first presented by the teacher to the whole class in a lecture discussion, or video technology format.
2.      Teams
Students are assigned to four or five member learning teams. Each team represents a cross section of the class, made up high, average, and low-achieving students, girls and boy, students of differing ethnic, racial, and economic backgrounds.
3.      Quizzes
After the team practices, each student takes a quiz on the material they have been studying. The quizzes assess individual achievement on the material presented and practiced in class. Group members may not help individuals on the quizzes.
4.      Individual Improvement Scores
A scoring system allows student to earn points for their team based on individual improvement over past performance
5.      Team Recognition
Teams are recognized for high individual performance and high team scores. Social recognition such as weekly class newsletters, bulletin boards displays, or weekly class radio announcements are used as rewards for individuals and teams.
(Slavin 1987) from Cooperative Learning : A New Direction. William Kimberly D. 1996.

Jolliffe (2005) explored the implementation of CL (STAD model) in some selected schools in England and found that teachers in those schools were convinced of the effectiveness of CL regarding its positive effects on
(a) academic achievement
(b) development of social skills.
A large majority of the teachers from the sample schools reported its use and half of them claimed to use it in more than half of their lessons.
“Effects of Cooperative Learning vs. Traditional Instruction on Prospective Teachers’ Learning Experience and Achievement” by Zaheer AHMAD and Nasir MAHMOOD. 2010.

The superiority of STAD cooperative learning strategy over the conventional technique could be attributed to the fact that it makes  students  develop  more  positive  attitudes  toward  self,  peer,  adults  and  learning  in  general (Omoshehin, 2004).
 by  Dr. Francis A. ADESOJI and Dr. Tunde L. IBRAHEEM. 2009.

In STAD, students are assigned to four- or five-member learning teams. The teams are composed of high, average, and low performing students, and of boys and girls of different racial or ethnic
backgrounds. Thus, each team is a microcosm of the entire class. There are five main steps a teacher should follow when STAD is implemented. The teacher first introduces new materials to be learned. The team members then study worksheets on the material until they master the material. Individual quizzes are taken on the material studied. The teacher then combines the scores to create team scores. Members of the winning team are given certificates and a weekly one-page class newsletter recognizes the teams with the highest scores. Researchers reported that
classes using cooperative learning showed an increase in achievement, attitude, self-esteem, and social relationships
(Edwards et al. 1972, Edwards and DeVries 1972, Gonzales 1979, Slavin and Karweit 1981, Ziegler 1981, Slavin 1989).

There are four reasons, which led to the selection of STAD as an alternative
teaching method.
First, it facilitates interaction between students in class.
Second, it improves attitude, self-esteem, and interpersonal relationships; all of these contribute to a positive attitude towards science.
Third, it adds an extra source of learning within groups, such as the high achievers who take on the role of tutors.
The end result is a higher achievement for everyone. Fourth, it prepares students to fit into modern society by teaching them to work with their classmates efficiently and effectively.
“The effectiveness of student team-achievement division (STAD) for teaching high school chemistry in the United Arab Emirates” Nagib M. A. Balfakih, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain Box 17551, United Arab Emirates; e-mail: 2003

The findings have indicate that STAD is a more effective teaching method than the traditional-teaching method in teaching tenth grade chemistry classes in the UAE. Male students benefited more than female students from using STAD as an alternative teaching method.
“The effectiveness of student team-achievement division (STAD) for teaching high school chemistry in the United Arab Emirates” Nagib M. A. Balfakih, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain Box 17551, United Arab Emirates; e-mail: 2003

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